TDI Report 2018
DG Trade of the European Commission recognized in its Report for Trade Defence Instruments (TDI) use the bicycle expiry reviews as measures of TDI efficiency. Specifically, according to DG Trade’s Report:
Measures on bicycles from China are another notable example of TDI effectiveness. Measures were first imposed in 1993 and a series of subsequent expiry and interim reviews concluded each time that these measures were still necessary in order to fend off Chinese injurious dumping. It can reasonably be argued that today the EU bicycle industry would not have existed absent the AD measures. In other countries, where measures were not imposed or lapsed, Chinese exporters had taken over the quasi-totality of the domestic market. Investigations have repeatedly found that the Chinese excess capacity is very important – the latest investigation established a spare capacity 25% higher than total EU consumption and China had seemingly attempted to make full use of this capacity. As a result, the EU had to stop in 2013 a large-scale circumvention scheme of the AD duties imposed on Chinese bicycles imports via Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Tunisia. This allowed the EU industry to return to modest yet sustained profits, as shown in the request for an expiry review that is currently ongoing.
The continued existence of the EU bicycle industry has structural effects on the EU economy. Without a functioning EU bicycle industry, the EU bicycle parts industry would not exist. Nor could Europe have developed an important new market, i.e. the electric bicycle industry that still has a significant growth potential. In the EU, 11.000 jobs are directly related to bicycle production, 16.000 jobs to the production of bicycle parts and 3.600 jobs to electric bicycles. In January 2019, the Commission imposed definitive AD and AS measures against imports of electric bicycles from China. It was found, that the Chinese electric bicycle exporters benefitted from massive subsidies.
You can find the link to the Report here.